Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age Related Macular Degeneration is one of the most common causes of vision loss for people over age 50. AMD is a problem that involves the retina. It occurs when a part of the retina called the macula is damaged. Although it doesn't cause total blindness, it can blur your central vision making it a lot harder to see things in front of you. It can also affect common everyday activities such as reading, driving, and cooking. 

AMD is very common. The time it progresses, on the other hand, may differ from one person to another. While it happens very slowly to some, it occurs faster in others. 

What are the Symptoms of Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD Singapore)? 

Early on, many people do not have any noticeable signs of AMD. but once the disease progresses, you may experience:

  • Slow loss of vision over months or years in both eyes
  • Distortion when looking at objects (wavy lines, underwater effect)
  • Fast blurring of central vision

If you have any of these symptoms, contact us immediately to get your eyes checked. 

What Increases the Risk of Age Related Macular Degeneration?

As the name suggests, age related macular degeneration is more likely to occur as you get older. Other risk factors for AMD also include:

  • Age (patients over 50 years old)
  • Gender (females)
  • Race (mainly Caucasians) 
  • Family history (immediate family like parents, siblings or children) who have AMD
  • Overexposure to UV light (sunlight)
  • Obesity 
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking 

Dry AMD vs. Wet AMD 

There are two different forms of AMD: Dry and Wet AMD.


Dry AMD is the most common form of macular degeneration. It occurs when parts of the macula get thinner with age. People with dry AMD typically experience yellow deposits in their macula, also called drusen. Few small drusens, may not affect your vision. But as the condition gets worse, you may lose your central vision. 


Web AMD is a less common but more serious form of macular degeneration. This occurs when abnormal blood vessels develop underneath the macula and the retina. When these blood vessels leak blood and fluid (a condition called choroidal neovascularization), it may cause scarring in the macula. Due to this, you may see dark spots and straight lines may appear wavy. Compared to dry AMD, wet AMD is more severe. In fact, it can lead to total loss of central vision. 

How is Age Generated Macular Degeneration Treated?

There is no cure for AMD. However, there are various treatments to help slow it down and manage the severity of the symptoms. These include:

  • Dry:
    • Prevent progression of dry AMD to progressing to a Wet AMD by consumption of high-dose multivitamins and antioxidant supplements. In addition, we highly encourage patients to eat a nutritious diet that includes green leafy vegetables, yellow and orange fruit, and fish
    • Wear sunglasses to reduce UV exposure
    • Detection progression of AMD with a grid chart that we provide patients with each visit
  • Wet:
    • Ophthalmologists would do different surgeries to reduce the progression of AMD. For example:
      • Laser photocoagulation
      • Photodynamic therapy
      • Intravitreal anti-VEGF agents
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